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It is a peninsula about 8.5 km long surrounded by the water of the Adige, the fishing valleys and the Adriatic Sea. Mostly it is covered by a dense and luxuriant pine forest (domestic and maritime pine) planted by the State Forestry Corps in two periods (reforestation of about 60 and 40 years ago) and by a forest consisting mainly of holm oaks and downy oaks for a total of 172 hectares of surface.
The beach has several seaside resorts equipped with numerous accommodation facilities and commercial activities that meet the various needs of the tourist. It is equipped with hotels, campsites, tourist villages, apartments, swimming pool complexes, tennis courts, Porto Fossone tourist dock, riding stables.
During the tourist season, various nautical events and excursions are organized. It is possible to practice sport fishing for mackerel. Thanks to its naturalistic heritage, Rosolina Mare can also be visited in low season. Among its beauties, the Porto Caleri Botanical Coastal Garden deserves to be visited.
Rosolina is a quiet center of the Lower Polesine with more than 6000 inhabitants, who with their industriousness and resourcefulness, in the field of tourism and agriculture, have meant that, in 1987, on the occasion of the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the foundation of the Republic held in Rome, Rosolina was called to represent the province of Rovigo at the conference "The 100 Municipalities of Little Big Italy", as is proudly written on the road sign at the entrance to the country, for having contributed to the economic and social development of the country.
Rosolina is located in the Po River Delta where the landscape naturally tends to evolve in an enormously accelerated way compared to other territories; tides, winds, river currents, sandy deposits and also the action of man who wants to obtain new land and regulate the course of the river, are the causes of this evolution. Rosolina is called the "little Mesopotamia" of Italy; the land between the rivers, between the Adige to the north, the Po-Brondolo canal to the west and the Adriatic to the east.
Lagoons, ponds, of conspicuous economic importance and enormous ecological value, constituting the ideal habitat for fish farming and for the refuge and nesting of a rich and varied avifauna. The western part of the territory is the oldest, protected since ancient times by dune cords which, by marking the coastlines that have followed one another over time, allow us to reconstruct the evolution of this part of the Po Delta.
As the coastline moves away, the stabilized dunes are covered with a Mediterranean scrub, becoming fossils no longer subject to growth. In the Po Delta there are seven dune bars that represent the various stages of growth. Four are recognizable in the Rosolina area, even if largely destroyed by natural evolution and excavations for agricultural and building needs. Thus the ancient Selva di Fossone, dating back to the Roman era, was canceled but the remaining edges, now protected, retain their memory and represent unique ecosystems.
In Caleri the formation of dunes is a lively and active process. The most imposing and elevated sandbar was that of the Etruscan-Roman era because, since the coast remained stable for longer, as there was no contribution of sand and debris from large rivers, it had more time to grow. Only from the mid-twelfth century, with the arrival of the waters of the Po, the coast began to advance, forming the territorial structure of the future Rosolina.
Unfortunately, however, needs for settlement and work development (sometimes even unjustified), have almost entirely dismantled the ancient dunes and their rich Mediterranean scrub has been lost. The remaining flaps help to reconstruct the geological history of the Delta, condensed in the stratifications of the sand that can be glimpsed where the dunes are damaged by excavations.
This road, indicated and called "Roman road" even in recent times, originated near Ariano, detaching itself from the route of Via Popillia (built by the consul Publio Popillio in 132 BC to connect Rimini to Adria. The Roman presence has been confirmed by the findings archaeological sites of Corte Cavanella near the Rantin bridge, perhaps the ancient Roman "mansio".
The foundation of a Roman villa was discovered and furnishings, coins and even the remains of an 8-meter boat were found, as well as other finds now kept in the Archaeological Museum of Adria. To the north of the Adige, in Cavana, a section of the Via Popillia was discovered. When the route of Ficarolo took place towards the middle of the 12th century (perhaps there were more than one routes) the Po divided into two main branches, a branch of the northernmost led to the Fornaci, between Donada and Rosolina, causing the advancement of the coast with its alluvial deposits. Said Po delle Fornaci originated the three branches of Tramontana, Lev ante and Scirocco.
Finally, the Caleri branch (today's port) and other minor ones branched off from the Po di Tramontana, which opened at Piazza S. Giorgio in Rosolina Mare, while the Bocchetta or Po della Barca branch off from the Po di Levante. Pozzatini-Albarella).
In a relatively short time, new territories were formed which the Venetian Republic periodically confiscated and assigned through public auctions; The Venetian nobles and lords competed, leaving traces in the modern local toponyms: Cà Diedo, Cà Morosini, Moceniga, Veniera, Sagreda, Centona and Capitania (from the great captain Marco Dolce), or the Bragadina area, while there are no more references to others: Priuli, Nadal, Sanudo, Corner, Farsetti, Zorzi, Marcello, Bembo and others. These nobles carried out fish farming in these alluvial soils, distinguished between "high, middle and low" or, more specifically, "arable, grassy, grazing, marshy and valleys".
Over time, with reed barriers, palisades or embankments, the technique of fish farming was perfected. In spite of the Taglio di Porto Viro (1604) which diverted the Po towards the south in the Sacca di Goro, the troubled Po Valley persisted and threatened the burial of the ports in the southern part of the lagoon; it was therefore necessary to register the Po di Tramontana and the Bocchetta (1612) and the Po di Fornaci (1645) preventing the direct flow of the waters of the Po to Rosolina, significantly limiting its territorial growth.
Rosolina, which has always been integrated with Loreo, became independent in 1806 in the alternation of French and Austrian dominions after the fall of Venice; re-aggregated in Loreo in 1811, it will become common again in 1816. Quiet rural village until the 60s then began to exploit the considerable tourist potential by creating the current seaside resort of Rosolina Mare between the pine forests of the beach between the Adige and the island of Albarella
Agriculture also has a strong development, passing from extensive to intensive, with strong production of precious vegetables (up to 300,000 quintals per year) among which the radicchio of the variety called "la rosa di Chioggia" stands out, of which local producers boast paternity. Crunchy vegetable, made tasty by the brackish air, is produced in large quantities so as to cause periodic crises of overproduction, despite being competitive with other more famous varieties of radicchio. Other vegetables are also grown in abundance (especially in spring-summer): carrots, onions and tomatoes.
Despite the bursting development and human interventions of the last thirty years, the territory of Rosolina has maintained landscapes of a sweet, non-aggressive, highly suggestive beauty, which can compete with other more well-known and publicized locations, such as the Coto Donana Spanish or the French Camargue.
Without making more or less exotic trips but remaining in Italy, we can discover a natural environment of lagoons, ponds, sandbanks, fishing valleys, endless reeds, pine forests smelling of resin and rare orchid blooms, with a riot of marsh fauna: fast flights of cormorants, scurrying in the low stretches of water of waders and herons, where every now and then a small church or a casone in the valley appears among the mists.
In the square characterized by a sober composure, the church of S. Antonio stands out, erected by the Sanudo family and elevated to a parish in 1670. Restored and enlarged in the early decades of the 1800s and 1900s, its sacristy was damaged by a fire in 1982;
It was replaced by the new parish church, inaugurated in 1989 (architect Umberto Facchini), where the eighteenth-century statue of the Blessed Virgin Immaculate is kept, brought from the old Moceniga church, attributed to the Bonazza school, where there are valuable works of modern art, like the large cross above the altar or the refined "Via Crucis" (work of Luciano Scarpante).
After crossing the railway, after a short stretch of via Po-Brondolo, you arrive at the fruit and vegetable plant, where the vegetables produced in the area converge (the auctions of horticultural products are rather lively and curious: the participants whisper offered with a now codified ritual and the highest wins).
Cross the Bassafonda going up the Via dei Cesari; the surrounding environment is a succession of lands cultivated with orchards with painstaking precision, obtained from the dismantling of the ancient dunes of the Etruscan and protohistoric period. However, some edges have been preserved and give an idea of how the environment must have been only about forty years ago.
The remaining paleodunes appear not as heaps of very fine sand but as reliefs of about ten meters high and a width of about a hundred locally called "rams" or "monti de sabia", covered by a thermophilic holm oak scrub with dense undergrowth. They were formed near the sea due to the action of the wind that moved the coastal sand, and of the more advanced benches, then fixed by the pioneer plants that cause their accumulation and stabilization. They constitute a refuge, almost an oasis among the cultivated fields, for a varied bird life and many small mammals.
Once in Volto di Rosolina, along the railway you reach the Adige and following the embankment road to the left you will reach the right Cavanella d'Adige basin, broken across the river by the left basin. These two basins are a very important node in the Po river system, connecting the Po plain with the Venice lagoon, through the Po-Brondolo canal and the Valle canal ("valley" seems an out of place name, more suited to the mountain but reality is correct, deriving from the Latin "vadum", shallow, dry).
Currently the system of the valley waters is all artificially regulated with an ingenious system of locks and canals that make up for the impossibility of a direct exchange of water with the normal tidal flow due to the subsidence of the land caused by compaction and in this century by methane extraction. and water. Valliculture originally exploits the natural tendency of new fish to rise from the sea to the shallow and warm waters of the valleys with the so-called "late winter mountain". Hunting is part of the tradition of the Po valleys, well rooted since ancient times, and guarantees a large part of the valley income.
With a little attention and luck it is possible to catch a glimpse of the fluttering of the kingfisher, with its shiny metallic-colored feathers, as it flies over the stretch of water facing the sluice with large guillotine shutters. Beyond the basin, the embankment road climbs up the Adige, with its beautiful riparian vegetation and passes by various farms including that of Corte Cavanella, famous for its archaeological finds.
Arriving near Tornova you will find the large Istrian stone plaque, dated 1785, where the period tariffs are set for the passage of boats in the Loreo canal, once navigable and now a lazy stream full of reeds. . Following it you reach the small town of Tornova with the beautiful villa called the "Castello", property of the Vianelli nobles, with a façade adorned with beautiful friezes and splendid decorated ceilings, located next to the oratory of the small romantic village church, now closed because replaced by the parish church by the disconcerting post-modern architecture in reinforced concrete.
From Tornova, crossing manicured fields, you reach the Rantin bridge which crosses the Po-Brondolo canal. At this point you have two possibilities: turning left, along the embankment dirt road, you return to the basin meeting the characteristic Bella Aurora courtyard surrounded by groves on the remains of the paleodunes of the oldest cordon, the protohistoric and by the internal road you return to Volto and along via Bassafonda to Rosolina.
Or to the right, follow the canal towards the south along the bank, wandering over fields that in spring are a whole mosaic of green shades of the different crops, while in autumn they are a continuous expanse of dark red color of mature radicchio plants. When you reach the Sacco bridge, you leave the embankment and among the remains of dunes and groves you arrive at the Norge village, with a regular square plan similar to that of a Roman "castrum". It is a grouping of pretty one-storey houses, donated by Norway to help displaced families, on the occasion of the 1951 flood.
After crossing the state road to Loreo, at the intersection between the Po di Levante and the Po-Brondolo canal, a place called "il Puntone" or "Punta Priuleta", you will find a beautiful country residence, recently restored, called for its position "Palazzo in Punta".
After walking along the embankment and observing coots and hens among the reeds, you return to Rosolina, the outskirts of which are announced by another interesting example of rustic villa, the "Palasson", an old Austrian customs house which has now become a rural home. enter the town center or enter the Romea road.