- Casa del Mayorazgo “La casona”
- Calle mayor S/N
- CP 09615 Barbadillo de Herreros
- Burgos - Spain
- 608 22 22 98
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The first decades of the 20th century fed off of large doses of the inertia that characterized the 19th century, barely altered by the incipient industrialization taking place in the capital and in the city of Miranda, and the subsequent consolidation of the employer associations and class-conscious or integrating labor associations. This social dichotomy was reflected, as would be expected, in housing: while the bourgeoisie leaders were identified with the most avant-garde artistic developments, as seen in some of the buildings n the Plaza Mayor, the Paseo del Espolón, and the Paseo de la Isla, the first immigrants to join the proletariat in the capital began feverish construction of “Cheap housing” in the city’s suburbs.
As a counterpoint to this marked trend of continuance, the middle years of the century were characterized by two truly traumatic events – the Civil War of 1936-39 and the rural exodus of the 50s-70s. In terms of the crudest realities of war, as a battlefield the province of Burgos was hardly touched, with the exception of the front in the barren lands and valleys of the north. This is not to say that the drama of the war went unnoticed by the population of Burgos as a whole, which was shaken daily by the calls for new soldiers, the news of the deaths on the different Spanish fronts, and above all, by the atmosphere of terror that was sown among the civilian population of the immense majority of the province’s towns and cities by the most aggressive sectors of the warring bands. In the territory of Burgos, which fell entirely within the so-called “National” band, the protagonism in this sense corresponded, and was especially intense, to the groups who sympathized with the uprising, whose programs of purges, cleansing, and summary executions gave the conflict violent connotations universal in scope and with brutal intensity
On the other side of this situation, in these years, the capital lived with a bittersweet sensation of protagonism and vitality, by becoming the center of the governmental institutions of the national zone and housing a large number of functionaries, to the satisfaction of the economic leaders responsible for the urban supply.
The War ended, and the territory of Burgos, including its capital – abandoned by the victorious military as soon as they could move to Madrid – stagnated, curing the wounds left by the fratricidal conflict in melancholy isolation. The rural world was revived demographically in the 50s, but the economic trends of the group left little room for hope. Industrialization continued to show minimal vitality, and factories were built in a timid, discontinuous stream, intermittent and disconnected, with no capacity to change the general panorama: in 1960, agriculture still employed 52% of the active population, with industry supporting a mere 22% of the province’s production.
This imbalance gave rise to the second traumatic episode in the recent history of Burgos: the depopulation of the rural areas, which began in the 50s with the mass exodus of groups from the towns to the areas that at that time were already showing an attractive industrial vitality and that quired labor: Madrid and the Basque Country, where many Burgos families settled at the end of the 50s and the beginning of the 60s.
The declaration of Burgos as a “Pole of Development” in 1964 and the later official development of the industrial centers of Miranda de Ebro and Aranda de Duero redirected the flow of the rural population to those cities, which allowed the province to maintain its overall demographic potential, which increased from 344,000 in 1900 to 349,000 in 2001, of which approximately 65% were concentrated in the province’s three large cities: Burgos, Miranda de Ebro, and Aranda de Duero, which have been joined in recent decades, with force but still trailing in terms of demographic potential, by Briviesca, demonstrating its capacity to attract those from inside and outside the province to work in its industries.
Rural depopulation was particularly intense in the Burgos districts of Loras, los Páramos, Valles de Sedano, and the Tierra de Lara, while the other areas have remained at the levels required to continue working the fields, which, thanks to the increase in the size of farms and mechanization has far exceeded the production potential of the first half of the century. Likewise, the abandonment of the towns by the traditional laborers has not, except on rare occasions, resulted in the ruin of their buildings, which have been restored and refurbished in recent decades as second homes for the inhabitants of the outlying towns during vacations and weekends.
With the main cities and towns of Burgos firmly entrenched in the development of the 60s, the future was cleared definitively with the official establishment of democracy in 1978 and the incorporation into the European Union in 1986
Both of these events symbolized the support for a general desire for progress and development, which in all of our cities and towns has translated into a decided will to recover local civic pride, which has in turn made it possible to maintain a sustained policy of clean public image of each urban center, by renovating streets, remodeling antiquated houses, restoring and beautifying the most representative historic monuments, moving industrial and livestock activities from the city centers to better suited peripheral areas, concern for quality of life in laying out urban developments, the multiplication of cultural possibilities and sports and recreational installations open to the citizens, and the support of the social life in each town by caring for its associative framework. F.J.P.P.
ExcursionsBurgos And The Pilgrims' Way To Santiago
Burgos played an important role on the Way to Santiago. Along almost 120 km pilgrims at all times found hospitality and help. Places such as Redecilla del Camino, Belorado, Villafranca-Montes de Oca, San Juan de Ortega, Burgos (which had as many as 33 hospitals and one of the most important ones along the Way: El Hospital del Rey), Hornillos del Camino or Castrojeriz were milestones on the Way and became famous far beyond the Pyrenees.Towns And Villages Steeped In History
The Province of Burgos is beautiful and full of variety. In proof of its wealth, some figures: at present, there are 34 complexes and 119 monuments of historical or artistic interest which are under official protection. Briefly, in the north there are Espinosa de los Monteros and the Mena valley with good Romanesque buildings. Las Merindades include the monumental site of Medina de Pomar, Villarcayo and Valdevieso valley, as well as good Romanesque examples. The area around Sedano is an attractive combination of scenery and small rural centres. In the extensive La Bureba region, especially outstanding are Briviesca, the capital, and on its northern side Poza de la Sal and Oña. Frias is a lovely village below a rock castle. Around Miranda de Ebro, Pancorbo, Santa Gadea del Cid or El Condado de Treviño are additional finds.Towards the west, there are places which are proud of their splendid churches. Villahoz, Mahamud, Santa Maria del Campo and Sasamón are good examples. In the basin of the Arlanza, we discover Covarrubias, the Monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos and Lerma. The region of Lara is captivating with memories of Femán González and Visigothic Quintanilla de las Viñas. The mountain area, abounding in wood, high-medieval necropolis and beautiful countryside, also has a capital: Salas de los Infantes. In the south, finally, La Ribera, the land of wine and lamb, centring around Aranda de Duero with places such as Roa, Peñaranda de Duero, La Vid Monastery or the Roman ruins of Clunia.
The geographical features of the province and the low population density in the rural areas encourage game species to proliferate. Wild boar is found in the oak, holm oak and beech forests of any Burgos mountainside. Apart from in other areas, Roe deer is commonly found in the National Game Preserve of "Sierra de la Demanda" (surface area: 73,819 ha). There are 787 private shootings which include 87% of the surface area of the province as well as the game club reserves of Peral de Arlanza and Villafruela, where partridge, quail, hare, rabbit and duck may be shot. After the disappearance of the exquisite river crab, common trout has become the most important fresh water species. There are 800km of trout fishing and fishing rights along 250 km of the Ordunte reservoirs and the Upper Neila Lagoons.
Burgos cooking consists of carefully- and well-prepared dishes. Especially outstanding is roast lamb, which is served everywhere in the province, but above all along the river Duero; the tasty olla podrida, ie, a chickpea stew; different kinds of garlic soup; Burgos-style lentils; minced pork or Castile-style trout. Famous items are the piquant sausages (ie, chorizos) from Villarcayo; black pudding; fresh -or Burgos- and sheep-miIk cheese; the white beans from Ibeas and Belorado; as well as the butter from Espinosa de los Monteros. Desserts and sweet dishes include the almonds from Briviesca, Burgos yemas (ie, sugared egg yolk) or the pine nut and sugar paste from Aranda de Duero. Along La Ribera del Duero (ie, the banks of the Duero) good-quality reds and rosa (called clarete) are produced and officially guaranteed.
Many of the celebrations are varied, but unknown. Three of them are classified as 'of interest to tourists', though there are others which are no less attractive. The former are San Juan del Monte in Miranda de Ebro on Whit Sunday and Monday, "El Colacho" in Castrillo de Murcia on the Sunday after Corpus Christi and El Dia de las Peñas (lit. Day of the Circles of Friends) in Burgos on the first Sunday in July.