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The Crimean peninsula occupies a small territory but its strategic geographical position, on the borders of Russia, the Caucasus, Europe and the Middle East, attracts envy. At the same attitude as the south of France, Crimea benefits from a particular climate. Two climatic zones separate the peninsula: to the north a temperate zone and to the south an area with a Mediterranean-type climate.
The Crimean mountain ranges separate the two regions where one can often see great differences in temperature. 207 km separate the north of the Crimean peninsula (Perekop Isthmus) from the extreme southern point (Cape Sarych) Between the west (Tarhankut peninsula) and the east (Cape Fonar Kertch) the distance is 324 km.
Travel Guide Crimea is a wonderful place to rest in any season. A "miniature world": a unique combination of different climates and reliefs gives Crimea all its charm. The northern part of the peninsula is occupied by the steppes. The Crimean mountains are located in the southern part of the island and offer wonderful hiking possibilities. Crimea is surrounded by the Black Sea to the west and south and the Sea of Azov to the east.
This geographical position between two seas: the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and the isolation gave life to rare vegetation and fauna.
The small size of the peninsula and its isolation explains the scarcity of Crimean flora and fauna. Many species are endemic (for example, the Crimean carabus).
Crimean red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, wild boar, fox, marten, badger live in woods and Crimean mountains. The birds are: jays, woodpeckers, ouzels, owls, a large number of woodcock, and also the black-headed griffin. The fauna of underground cavities is very specific. Bats, worms, insects, mollusks live there. The brown hare is widespread. Lark, partridge, quail, represent the world of birds in the Crimean plain. In the northern part of the peninsula is a paradise for water birds: ducks, seagulls. Herons made their nests in the reeds. Thousands of swans congregate during moulting and wintering on the islands. There are also large colonies of herring gulls, terns, etc. In the Crimea, there are patically no poisonous snakes.
Different types of animals are found in the fresh waters of Crimea. freshwater crab, daphnia, amphipods and crayfish. Many of them are food for fish: carp, crucian, strawberries etc. Trout stream, sculpin, Crimean bar are native to mountain rivers. Wildlife has not always been the same as it is today. It is known that some million years ago, when the climate was more humid and warmer, giraffes, antelopes, hornless rhinos lived in the Crimea. After their disappearance, camels, southern elephants, cave bears occupied the peninsula.
At the time of the Quaternary cold snap, lepus, glutton, lynx, reindeer, black grouse, willow ptarmigan and moor game were distributed in Crimea, and in the suburb of Simferopol (Chokurchinsky cave) the rest of the mammoth were found. In the Zouya river basin (Kiik-Koba cave) the bones of the following species were found: the saiga antelope, the bison, the mammoth, the brown bear, the red fox, except for the extinct mammoth, now live far north of the Crimea. At different times there were animals that live on the peninsula that now have disappeared: Biruli's marmot, Eversmann's hamster, cave bear, hyena and lion, European wild ass, deer giant.
From Corsica the mouflon has been reintroduced; Jaal-goat was issued from Kyrgyzstan, some types of squirrel - from Altai, wild boar - from the south of the Far East, wild rabbit from the Odessa region. partridge, mountain pheasant - kekliks were settled in the Crimea. In the Sea of Azov acclimatization of the fish pilengas were successfully held. Many types of wild animals on the peninsula (196 species, more than 50% of all Crimean fauna) are already in the Red Book of Ukraine and are under state protection. Among these are: black stork, certain types of dolphins, bustard, little bustard, Crimea.